UMMS Affiliation

Department of Medicine

Publication Date


Document Type



Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins | Cell Biology | Cells | Hemic and Immune Systems | Investigative Techniques | Viruses


Several different assay methodologies have been described for the evaluation of HIV or SIV-specific antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). Commonly used assays measure ADCC by evaluating effector cell functions, or by detecting elimination of target cells. Signaling through Fc receptors, cellular activation, cytotoxic granule exocytosis, or accumulation of cytolytic and immune signaling factors have been used to evaluate ADCC at the level of the effector cells. Alternatively, assays that measure killing or loss of target cells provide a direct assessment of the specific killing activity of antibodies capable of ADCC. Thus, each of these two distinct types of assays provides information on only one of the critical components of an ADCC event; either the effector cells involved, or the resulting effect on the target cell. We have developed a simple modification of our previously described high-throughput ADCC GranToxiLux (GTL) assay that uses area scaling analysis (ASA) to facilitate simultaneous quantification of ADCC activity at the target cell level, and assessment of the contribution of natural killer cells and monocytes to the total observed ADCC activity when whole human peripheral blood mononuclear cells are used as a source of effector cells. The modified analysis method requires no additional reagents and can, therefore, be easily included in prospective studies. Moreover, ASA can also often be applied to pre-existing ADCC-GTL datasets. Thus, incorporation of ASA to the ADCC-GTL assay provides an ancillary assessment of the ability of natural and vaccine-induced antibodies to recruit natural killer cells as well as monocytes against HIV or SIV; or to any other field of research for which this assay is applied.


GranToxiLux assay, HIV, antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, monocytes, natural killer cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells

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Copyright 2018 The Authors. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

DOI of Published Version



Cytometry A. 2018 Apr;93(4):436-447. doi: 10.1002/cyto.a.23348. Epub 2018 Mar 2. Link to article on publisher's site

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Cytometry. Part A : the journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology

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Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.