UMMS Affiliation

Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology

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Digestive System Diseases | Gastroenterology | Hepatology | Neoplasms


Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), a heterogeneous group of malignancy arising at any level of the biliary tree based on their anatomical location, is classified into intrahepatic (iCCA), perihilar, and distal subtypes. iCCA, which arises distally to the second‐order bile ducts, is a highly heterogeneous and aggressive malignancy with overall poor prognosis. The rate of iCCA is increasing rapidly, particularly in Western countries; however, its precise etiology and pathogenesis remain elusive.1 While surgical resection is the first line of treatment, liver transplantation is the potential curative treatment for unresectable tumors in patients with iCCA, and posttransplantation 5‐year survival rates are 51% in these patients. Currently, there are no curative medical therapies or targeted molecular therapies approved for use in iCCA. The complex plethora of cell types, extracellular matrix, and soluble factors that influence tumor progression should be considered to understand its pathogenesis and to devise effective strategies for its clinical management.1 Furthermore, identification of biomarker signatures relevant to disease progression and aggressiveness may not only aid in diagnosis but also have prognostic value that will help build a precision approach for the treatment of iCCA....

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Copyright 2018 The Authors. Hepatology Communications published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on behalf of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

DOI of Published Version



Hepatol Commun. 2018 Apr 25;2(5):481-483. doi: 10.1002/hep4.1189. eCollection 2018 May. Link to article on publisher's site

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Hepatology communications

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PubMed ID


Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.