UMMS Affiliation

Department of Pathology; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology

Publication Date


Document Type



Immunopathology | Investigative Techniques | Medical Pathology | Pathology | Virology | Viruses


BACKGROUND: Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6A and HHV-6B) infection of cell cultures can be measured by different methods, including immunofluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, or quantification of virus DNA by qPCR. These methods are reliable and sensitive but require long processing times and can be costly. Another method used in the field relies on the identification of enlarged cells in the culture; this method requires little sample processing and is relatively fast. However, visual inspection of cell cultures can be subjective and it can be difficult to establish clear criteria to decide if a cell is enlarged. To overcome these issues, we explored a method to monitor HHV-6B infections based on the systematic and objective measurement of the size of cells using an imaging-based automated cell counter.

RESULTS: The size of cells in non-infected and HHV-6B-infected cultures was measured at different times post-infection. The relatively narrow size distribution observed for non-infected cultures contrasted with the broader distributions observed in infected cultures. The average size of cultures shifted towards higher values after infection, and the differences were significant for cultures infected with relatively high doses of virus and/or screened at longer times post-infection. Correlation analysis showed that the trend observed for average size was similar to the trend observed for two other methods to measure infection: amount of virus DNA in supernatant and the percentage of cells expressing a viral antigen. In order to determine the performance of the size-based method in differentiating non-infected and infected cells, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to analyze the data. Analysis using size of individual cells showed a moderate performance in detecting infected cells (area under the curve (AUC) ~ 0.80-0.87), while analysis using the average size of cells showed a very good performance in detecting infected cultures (AUC ~ 0.99).

CONCLUSIONS: The size-based method proved to be useful in monitoring HHV-6B infections for cultures where a substantial fraction of cells were infected and when monitored at longer times post-infection, with the advantage of being relatively fast and easy. It is a convenient method for monitoring virus production in-vitro and bulk infection of cells.


Cell size, Cytopathic effect, HHV-6B, Imaging-based automated cell counter

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© The Author(s). 2018 Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

DOI of Published Version



Virol J. 2018 Jan 5;15(1):4. doi: 10.1186/s12985-017-0917-z. Link to article on publisher's site

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Virology journal

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Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.