Department of Dermatology
Dermatology | Neoplasms | Oncology | Pathological Conditions, Signs and Symptoms | Pathology | Skin and Connective Tissue Diseases
Extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) is a rare, slow-growing, cutaneous adenocarcinoma that usually originates in the anogenital area and axillae outside the mammary glands. EMPD mostly progresses slowly and is often diagnosed as carcinoma in situ; however, upon becoming invasive, it promptly and frequently metastasizes to regional lymph nodes, leading to subsequent distant metastasis. To date, several chemotherapy regimens have been used to treat metastatic EMPD; however, they present limited effect and patients with distant metastasis exhibit a poor prognosis. Recently, basic and translational investigative research has elucidated factors and molecular mechanisms underlying the promotion of metastasis, which can lead to targeted therapy-based emerging treatment strategies. Here, we aim to discuss current therapies and their limitations; advancements in illustrating mechanisms promoting invasion, migration, and proliferation of EMPD tumor cells; and future therapeutic approaches for metastatic EMPD that may enhance clinical outcomes.
CD163+M2 macrophage, CXCR4–stromal cell-derived factor-1 axis, HER2–PI3K/ERK signaling, anti-PD-1 antibody, lymphangiogenesis, metastatic extramammary Paget’s disease, mismatch-repair deficient, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand–RANK signaling
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Copyright: © 2018 Fukuda and Funakoshi. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
DOI of Published Version
Front Oncol. 2018 Feb 16;8:38. doi: 10.3389/fonc.2018.00038. eCollection 2018. Link to article on publisher's site
Frontiers in oncology
Fukuda, Keitaro and Funakoshi, Takeru, "Metastatic Extramammary Paget's Disease: Pathogenesis and Novel Therapeutic Approach" (2018). Open Access Articles. 3355.
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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.