Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology; UMass Metabolic Network
Cancer Biology | Cell Biology | Cellular and Molecular Physiology | Immunoprophylaxis and Therapy | Neoplasms | Therapeutics
Several scientific and clinical studies have shown an association between chronic alcohol consumption and the occurrence of cancer in humans. The mechanism for alcohol-induced carcinogenesis has not been fully understood, although plausible events include genotoxic effects of acetaldehyde, cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1)-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species, aberrant metabolism of folate and retinoids, increased estrogen, and genetic polymorphisms. Here, we summarize the impact of alcohol drinking on the risk of cancer development and potential underlying molecular mechanisms. The interactions between alcohol abuse, anti-tumor immune response, tumor growth, and metastasis are complex. However, multiple studies have linked the immunosuppressive effects of alcohol with tumor progression and metastasis. The influence of alcohol on the host immune system and the development of possible effective immunotherapy for cancer in alcoholics are also discussed here. The conclusive biological effects of alcohol on tumor progression and malignancy have not been investigated extensively using an animal model that mimics the human disease. This review provides insights into cancer pathogenesis in alcoholics, alcohol and immune interactions in different cancers, and scope and future of targeted immunotherapeutic modalities in patients with alcohol abuse.
alcohol, animal models, cancer risk, immunosuppression, immunotherapy, metabolism
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© 2017 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
DOI of Published Version
Biomolecules. 2017 Aug 14;7(3). pii: biom7030061. doi: 10.3390/biom7030061. Link to article on publisher's site
Ratna, Anuradha and Mandrekar, Pranoti, "Alcohol and Cancer: Mechanisms and Therapies" (2017). Open Access Articles. 3222.
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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.