UMMS Affiliation

Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine; Department of Quantitative Health Sciences

Publication Date


Document Type



Anesthesia and Analgesia | Anesthesiology | Orthopedics | Surgery


AIM: To investigate the microvascular (skeletal muscle tissue oxygenation; SmO2) response to transfusion in patients undergoing elective complex spine surgery.

METHODS: After IRB approval and written informed consent, 20 patients aged 18 to 85 years of age undergoing > 3 level anterior and posterior spine fusion surgery were enrolled in the study. Patients were followed throughout the operative procedure, and for 12 h postoperatively. In addition to standard American Society of Anesthesiologists monitors, invasive measurements including central venous pressure, continual analysis of stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), cardiac index (CI), and stroke volume variability (SVV) was performed. To measure skeletal muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2) during the study period, a non-invasive adhesive skin sensor based on Near Infrared Spectroscopy was placed over the deltoid muscle for continuous recording of optical spectra. All administration of fluids and blood products followed standard procedures at the Hospital for Special Surgery, without deviation from usual standards of care at the discretion of the Attending Anesthesiologist based on individual patient comorbidities, hemodynamic status, and laboratory data. Time stamps were collected for administration of colloids and blood products, to allow for analysis of SmO2 immediately before, during, and after administration of these fluids, and to allow for analysis of hemodynamic data around the same time points. Hemodynamic and oxygenation variables were collected continuously throughout the surgery, including heart rate, blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, SV, CO, CI, SVV, and SmO2. Bivariate analyses were conducted to examine the potential associations between the outcome of interest, SmO2, and each hemodynamic parameter measured using Pearson's correlation coefficient, both for the overall cohort and within-patients individually. The association between receipt of packed red blood cells and SmO2 was performed by running an interrupted time series model, with SmO2 as our outcome, controlling for the amount of time spent in surgery before and after receipt of PRBC and for the inherent correlation between observations. Our model was fit using PROC AUTOREG in SAS version 9.2. All other analyses were also conducted in SAS version 9.2 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, United States).

RESULTS: Pearson correlation coefficients varied widely between SmO2 and each hemodynamic parameter examined. The strongest positive correlations existed between ScvO2 (P = 0.41) and SV (P = 0.31) and SmO2; the strongest negative correlations were seen between albumin (P = -0.43) and cell saver (P = -0.37) and SmO2. Correlations for other laboratory parameters studied were weak and only based on a few observations. In the final model we found a small, but significant increase in SmO2 at the time of PRBC administration by 1.29 units (P = 0.0002). SmO2 values did not change over time prior to PRBC administration (P = 0.6658) but following PRBC administration, SmO2 values declined significantly by 0.015 units (P < 0.0001).

CONCLUSION: Intra-operative measurement of SmO2 during large volume, yet controlled hemorrhage, does not show a statistically significant correlation with either invasive hemodynamic, or laboratory parameters in patients undergoing elective complex spine surgery.


Complex spine surgery, Hemodynamic monitoring, Microvascular blood flow, Near infrared spectroscopy, Transfusion

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Copyright ©The Author(s) 2017.

DOI of Published Version



World J Orthop. 2017 Jan 18. 8(1):49-56. Link to article on publisher's site

Journal/Book/Conference Title

World journal of orthopedics

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Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License



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