UMMS Affiliation

Department of Psychiatry

Publication Date


Document Type



Endocrine System Diseases | Health Services Administration | Health Services Research | Mental and Social Health | Mental Disorders | Psychiatry


BACKGROUND: There are many studies in the literature on the association between depression treatment and health expenditures. However, there is a knowledge gap in examining this relationship taking into account coexisting chronic conditions among patients with diabetes. We aim to analyze the association between depression treatment and healthcare expenditures among adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and newly-diagnosed depression, with consideration of coexisting chronic physical conditions.

METHODS: We used multi-state Medicaid data (2000-2008) and adopted a retrospective longitudinal cohort design. Medical conditions were identified using diagnosis codes (ICD-9-CM and CPT systems). Healthcare expenditures were aggregated for each month for 12 months. Types of coexisting chronic physical conditions were hierarchically grouped into: dominant, concordant, discordant, and both concordant and discordant. Depression treatment categories were as follows: antidepressants or psychotherapy, both antidepressants and psychotherapy, and no treatment. We used linear mixed-effects models on log-transformed expenditures (total and T2DM-related) to examine the relationship between depression treatment and health expenditures. The analyses were conducted on the overall study population and also on subgroups that had coexisting chronic physical conditions.

RESULTS: Total healthcare expenditures were reduced by treatment with antidepressants (16 % reduction), psychotherapy (22 %), and both therapy types in combination (28 %) compared to no depression treatment. Treatment with both antidepressants and psychotherapy was associated with reductions in total healthcare expenditures among all groups that had a coexisting chronic physical condition.

CONCLUSIONS: Among adults with T2DM and chronic conditions, treatment with both antidepressants and psychotherapy may result in economic benefits.


Comorbidity, Depression, Healthcare expenditures, Type 2 diabetes mellitus

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Copyright © The Author(s). 2016. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

DOI of Published Version



BMC Psychiatry. 2016 Jul 19;16(1):247. doi: 10.1186/s12888-016-0964-9. Link to article on publisher's site

Journal/Book/Conference Title

BMC psychiatry

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Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.