UMMS Affiliation

Department of Pathology; Department of Medicine, Division of Diabetes

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Animals; Graft Rejection; Humans; Interferon Type II; Leukocytes; Male; Mice; Mice, Inbred BALB C; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Mice, Inbred CBA; Mice, Transgenic; Skin Transplantation; T-Lymphocytes; *Transplantation Tolerance; Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha


Life Sciences | Medicine and Health Sciences


Allograft transplantation requires chronic immunosuppression, but there is no effective strategy to evaluate the long-term maintenance of immunosuppression other than assessment of graft function. The ability to monitor naive alloreactive T cells would provide an alternative guide for drug therapy at early, preclinical stages of graft rejection and for evaluating tolerance-inducing protocols. To detect and quantify naive alloreactive T cells directly ex vivo, we used the unique ability of naive T cells to rapidly produce TNF-alpha but not IFN-gamma. Naive alloreactive T cells were identified by the production of TNF-alpha after a 5-hour in vitro stimulation with alloantigen and were distinguished from effector/memory alloreactive T cells by the inability to produce IFN-gamma. Moreover, naive alloreactive T cells were not detected in mice tolerized against specific alloantigens. The frequency of TNF-alpha-producing cells was predictive for rejection in an in vivo cytotoxicity assay and correlated with skin allograft rejection. Naive alloreactive T cells were also detected in humans, suggesting clinical relevance. We conclude that rapid production of TNF-alpha can be used to quantify naive alloreactive T cells, that it is abrogated after the induction of tolerance, and that it is a potential tool to predict allograft rejection.

DOI of Published Version



Blood. 2007 Jan 15;109(2):819-26. Epub 2006 Sep 14. Link to article on publisher's site

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