UMMS Affiliation

Department of Radiology

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Document Type





The intrauterine device (IUD) is gaining popularity as a reversible form of contraception. Ultrasonography serves as first-line imaging for the evaluation of IUD position in patients with pelvic pain, abnormal bleeding, or absent retrieval strings. This review highlights the imaging of both properly positioned and malpositioned IUDs. The problems associated with malpositioned IUDs include expulsion, displacement, embedment, and perforation. Management considerations depend on the severity of the malposition and the presence or absence of symptoms. Three-dimensional ultrasonography has proven to be more sensitive in the evaluation of more subtle findings of malposition, particularly side-arm embedment. Familiarity with the ultrasonographic features of properly positioned and malpositioned IUDs is essential.


Contraceptive devices, female, Intrauterine devices, Ultrasonography

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This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

DOI of Published Version



Ultrasonography. 2015 Jul;34(3):183-94. doi: 10.14366/usg.15010. Epub 2015 Apr 1. Link to article on publisher's site

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Ultrasonography (Seoul, Korea)

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Link to Article in PubMed

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Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 License

Included in

Radiology Commons



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