Association between eating patterns and obesity in a free-living US adult population
Division of Preventive and Behavioral Medicine; Division of Cardiovascular Medicine
Adult; Age Factors; Aged; Cross-Sectional Studies; *Eating; *Energy Intake; Exercise; Female; Humans; Male; Massachusetts; Middle Aged; Obesity; Odds Ratio; Population Surveillance; Risk Factors; Sex Factors; United States
Cardiology | Community Health and Preventive Medicine | Medical Nutrition | Preventive Medicine
Some studies have suggested that eating patterns, which describe eating frequency, the temporal distribution of eating events across the day, breakfast skipping, and the frequency of eating meals away from home, may be related to obesity. Data from the Seasonal Variation of Blood Cholesterol Study (1994-1998) were used to evaluate the relation between eating patterns and obesity. Three 24-hour dietary recalls and a body weight measurement were collected at five equally spaced time points over a 1-year period from 499 participants. Data were averaged for five time periods, and a cross-sectional analysis was conducted. Odds ratios were adjusted for other obesity risk factors including age, sex, physical activity, and total energy intake. Results indicate that a greater number of eating episodes each day was associated with a lower risk of obesity (odds ratio for four or more eating episodes vs. three or fewer = 0.55, 95% confidence interval: 0.33, 0.91). In contrast, skipping breakfast was associated with increased prevalence of obesity (odds ratio = 4.5, 95% confidence interval: 1.57, 12.90), as was greater frequency of eating breakfast or dinner away from home. Further investigation of these associations in prospective studies is warranted.
Am J Epidemiol. 2003 Jul 1;158(1):85-92.
American journal of epidemiology
Ma, Yunsheng; Bertone, Elizabeth R.; Stanek, Edward J. III; Reed, George; Hebert, James R.; Cohen, Nancy L.; Merriam, Philip A.; and Ockene, Ira S., "Association between eating patterns and obesity in a free-living US adult population" (2003). Open Access Articles. 27.