Department of Molecular, Cell and Cancer Biology
Cellular and Molecular Physiology | Exercise Physiology
Endurance exercise, when performed regularly as part of a training program, leads to increases in whole-body and skeletal muscle-specific oxidative capacity. At the cellular level, this adaptive response is manifested by an increased number of oxidative fibers (Type I and IIA myosin heavy chain), an increase in capillarity and an increase in mitochondrial biogenesis. The increase in mitochondrial biogenesis (increased volume and functional capacity) is fundamentally important as it leads to greater rates of oxidative phosphorylation and an improved capacity to utilize fatty acids during sub-maximal exercise. Given the importance of mitochondrial biogenesis for skeletal muscle performance, considerable attention has been given to understanding the molecular cues stimulated by endurance exercise that culminate in this adaptive response. In turn, this research has led to the identification of pharmaceutical compounds and small nutritional bioactive ingredients that appear able to amplify exercise-responsive signaling pathways in skeletal muscle. The aim of this review is to discuss these purported exercise mimetics and bioactive ingredients in the context of mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. We will examine proposed modes of action, discuss evidence of application in skeletal muscle in vivo and finally comment on the feasibility of such approaches to support endurance-training applications in humans.
bioactives, exercise mimetics, mitochondrial biogenesis, nutraceuticals, skeletal muscle
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Copyright © 2015 Craig, Ashcroft, Belew, Stocks, Currell, Baar and Philp. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
DOI of Published Version
Front Physiol. 2015 Oct 27;6:296. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2015.00296. eCollection 2015. Link to article on publisher's site
Frontiers in physiology
Craig, Daniel M.; Ashcroft, Stephen P.; Belew, Micah Y.; Stocks, Ben; Currell, Kevin; Baar, Keith; and Philp, Andrew, "Utilizing small nutrient compounds as enhancers of exercise-induced mitochondrial biogenesis" (2015). Open Access Articles. 2683.
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.