UMMS Affiliation

Department of Neurology; Department of Pathology

Publication Date


Document Type



Immune System Diseases | Immunopathology | Nervous System Diseases | Neurology | Pathology


BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis is an acquired demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. It is the second most common cause of disability in adults in United States after head trauma.

DISCUSSION: The etiology of MS is probably multifactorial, related to genetic, environmental, and several other factors. The pathogenesis is not fully understood but is believed to involve T-cell-mediated inflammation directed against myelin and other related proteins with a possible role for B cells. The McDonald criteria have been proposed and revised over the years to guide the diagnosis of MS and are based on clinical presentation and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain and spinal cord to establish dissemination in time and space. The treatment of MS includes disease modification with immunomodulator drugs and symptom management to address the specific symptoms such as fatigue, spasticity, and pain.

CONCLUSION: An update on etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and immunomodulatory treatment of MS is presented.


Demyelination, diagnosis, etiology, immunomodulator, multiple sclerosis, pathogenesis, treatment

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Copyright 2015 The Authors. Brain and Behavior published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

DOI of Published Version



Brain Behav. 2015 Sep;5(9):e00362. doi: 10.1002/brb3.362. Epub 2015 Aug 3. Link to article on publisher's site

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Brain and behavior

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PubMed ID


Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.