UMMS Affiliation

Health Statistics and Geography Lab, Division of Preventive and Behavioral Medicine, Department of Medicine; UMass Worcester Prevention Research Center

Publication Date


Document Type



Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms | Community Health and Preventive Medicine | Geriatrics | Preventive Medicine


Background. Regular walking is critical to maintaining health in older age. We examined influences of individual and community factors on walking habits in older adults.

Methods. We analyzed walking habits among participants of a prospective cohort study of 745 community-dwelling men and women, mainly aged 70 years or older. We estimated community variations in utilitarian and recreational walking, and examined whether the variations were attributable to community differences in individual and environmental factors.

Results. Prevalence of recreational walking was relatively uniform while prevalence of utilitarian walking varied across the 16 communities in the study area. Both types of walking were associated with individual health and physical abilities. However, utilitarian walking was also strongly associated with several measures of neighborhood socioeconomic status and access to amenities while recreational walking was not.

Conclusions. Utilitarian walking is strongly influenced by neighborhood environment, but intrinsic factors may be more important for recreational walking. Communities with the highest overall walking prevalence were those with the most utilitarian walkers. Public health promotion of regular walking should take this into account.

Rights and Permissions

Copyright © 2015 Elizabeth Procter-Gray et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

DOI of Published Version



Elizabeth Procter-Gray, Suzanne G. Leveille, Marian T. Hannan, Jie Cheng, Kevin Kane, and Wenjun Li, “Variations in Community Prevalence and Determinants of Recreational and Utilitarian Walking in Older Age,” Journal of Aging Research, vol. 2015, Article ID 382703, 11 pages, 2015. doi:10.1155/2015/382703. Link to article on publisher's website

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Journal of Aging Research

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.