Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology
Immunology and Infectious Disease | Immunology of Infectious Disease | Influenza Humans | Viruses
The influenza A H7N9 virus outbreak in Eastern China in the spring of 2013 represented a novel, emerging avian influenza transmission to humans. While clinical and microbiological features of H7N9 infection have been reported in the literature, the current study investigated acute cytokine and antibody responses in acute H7N9 infection. Between March 27, 2013 and April 23, 2013, six patients with confirmed H7N9 influenza infection were admitted to Drum Tower Hospital, Nanjing, China. Acute phase serum cytokine profiles were determined using a high-throughput multiplex assay. Daily H7 hemagglutinin (HA)-specific IgG, IgM, and IgA responses were monitored by ELISA. Neutralizing antibodies specific for H7N9 viruses were determined against a pseudotyped virus expressing the novel H7 subtype HA antigen. Five cytokines (IL-6, IP-10, IL-10, IFNgamma, and TNFalpha) were significantly elevated in H7N9-infected patients when compared to healthy volunteers. Serum H7 HA-specific IgG, as well as IgM and IgA responses, were detected within 8 days of disease onset and increased in a similar pattern during acute infection. Neutralizing antibodies developed shortly after the appearance of binding antibody responses and showed similar kinetics as a fraction of the total H7 HA-specific IgG responses. H7N9 infection resulted in hallmark serum cytokine increases, which correlated with fever and disease persistence. The novel finding of simultaneous development of IgG, IgM, and IgA responses in acute H7N9 infection points to the potential for live influenza viruses to elicit fast and potent protective antibodies to limit the infection.
Cytokines, Antibodies, Antibody response, Fevers, Influenza, Enzyme-linked immunoassays, Immune response, H5N1
Rights and Permissions
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
DOI of Published Version
PLoS One. 2014 Jul 8;9(7):e101788. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0101788. eCollection 2014. Link to article on publisher's site
Huang, Rui; Zhang, Lu; Gu, Qin; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Hao, Yingying; Zhang, Kui; Liu, Yong; Dong, Danjiang; Wang, Shixia; Huang, Zuhu; Lu, Shan; and Wu, Chao, "Profiles of acute cytokine and antibody responses in patients infected with avian influenza A H7N9" (2014). Open Access Articles. 2478.
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.