UMMS Affiliation

Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology

Publication Date


Document Type



Immunity | Immunology of Infectious Disease


Infants have long been known to have higher infectious diseases morbidity and mortality and suboptimal vaccination responses compared to older children and adults. A variety of differences in innate and adaptive immune responses have been described between these two groups. We compared Toll-like receptor (TLR)-induced production of pro-interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha between 2-month-old infants and adults. TLR 7/8-induced production of pro-IL-1beta and IL-6 in monocytes was lower in 2-month-old infants compared to adults. There was no difference in TLR 7/8-induced production of TNF-alpha. Lower TLR-induced production of pro-IL-1beta and IL-6 in innate immune cells during early infancy likely contributes to suboptimal vaccine responses and infectious diseases susceptibility.

Rights and Permissions

Copyright 2013 Libraty et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

DOI of Published Version



Libraty DH, Zhang L, Woda M, Acosta LP, Obcena A, et al. (2013) Toll-Like Receptor Induced Pro-Interleukin-1β and Interleukin-6 in Monocytes Are Lower in Healthy Infants Compared to Adults. PLoS ONE 8(10): e78018. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0078018 Link to article on publisher's site

Journal/Book/Conference Title

PloS one

Related Resources

Link to Article in PubMed

PubMed ID