UMMS Affiliation

Department of Pathology

Publication Date


Document Type



Animals; CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes; CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes; Granzymes; Histocompatibility Antigens Class II; Humans; Immune System; Lysosomal-Associated Membrane Protein 1; Mice; Models, Biological; Phenotype; T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic


Immunology and Infectious Disease | Immunopathology


CD4 T cells that acquire cytotoxic phenotype and function have been repeatedly identified in humans, mice, and other species in response to many diverse pathogens. Since CD4 cytotoxic T cells are able to recognize antigenic determinants unique from those recognized by the parallel CD8 cytotoxic T cells, they can potentially contribute additional immune surveillance and direct effector function by lysing infected or malignant cells. Here, we briefly review much of what is known about the generation of cytotoxic CD4 T cells and describe our current understanding of their role in antiviral immunity. Furthering our understanding of the many roles of CD4 T cells during an anti-viral response is important for developing effective vaccine strategies that promote long-lasting protective immunity.

Rights and Permissions

Copyright © 2011 N. B. Marshall and S. L. Swain. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

DOI of Published Version



J Biomed Biotechnol. 2011;2011:954602. doi: 10.1155/2011/954602. Link to article on publisher's site

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Journal of biomedicine and biotechnology

Related Resources

Link to Article in PubMed

PubMed ID




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