UMMS Affiliation

Department of Pathology

Publication Date


Document Type



Amino Acid Sequence; Animals; HIV Envelope Protein gp41; Humans; Mice; *Models, Immunological; Molecular Sequence Data; Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell; Receptors, Immunologic; Signal Transduction; Viruses


Immunology and Infectious Disease | Life Sciences | Medicine and Health Sciences | Microbiology


In this Opinion, based on a novel model of immune signaling, the Signaling Chain HOmoOLigomerization (SCHOOL) model, I suggest specific mechanisms used by different viruses such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), herpesvirus saimiri (HVS), human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), etc., to modulate the host immune response mediated by members of the family of multichain immune recognition receptors (MIRRs). I also demonstrate how the SCHOOL model, together with the lessons learned from viral pathogenesis, can be used practically for rational drug design and the development of new therapies for immune disorders.

Rights and Permissions

Copyright: © 2009 Alexander B. Sigalov. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

DOI of Published Version



Sigalov AB (2009) Novel Mechanistic Insights into Viral Modulation of Immune Receptor Signaling. PLoS Pathog 5(7): e1000404. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1000404. Link to article on publisher's site

Journal/Book/Conference Title

PLoS pathogens

Related Resources

Link to Article in PubMed

PubMed ID