Progesterone regulation of endometrial estrogen receptor and cell proliferation during the late proliferative and secretory phase in artificial menstrual cycles in the rhesus monkey

UMMS Affiliation

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology

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Document Type



Animals; Down-Regulation; Endometrium; Female; Immunohistochemistry; Ki-67 Antigen; Macaca mulatta; Menstrual Cycle; Neoplasm Proteins; Nuclear Proteins; Ovariectomy; Progesterone; Receptors, Estrogen


Life Sciences | Medicine and Health Sciences


Progesterone (P) down-regulation of uterine estradiol (E) receptor (ER) appears to be a general mechanism by which P modulates E action in the uterus. Our present studies focus on the regulation of ER by P during the changeover from E to P dominance during artificial menstrual cycles in the rhesus monkey. Because of differential cell-type response and the cellular zonation of the primate uterus, we used immunohistochemical analysis in addition to biochemical assays to study the regulation of ER by P. Ki-67 immunoreactivity was used as an index of endometrial proliferation. We performed our analyses on Days 13 (peak of E), 14 (declining E and rising P), 17 (basal E and rising P), and 21 (basal E and peak P). ER immunoreactivity was present throughout the endometrium in luminal and glandular epithelia and stromal fibroblasts on Day 13. As E was withdrawn and P rose on Day 14 there were few distinct changes in ER staining in stromal and epithelial cells. On Day 17, immunoreactive staining showed a distinct reduction for stromal cells in all zones. Although luminal epithelial cells showed a decrease in immunoreactivity on Day 17, zones II, III, and IV retained positive staining for ER in glandular epithelia. ER staining in stromal cells on Day 21 was similar to the pattern observed on Day 17, whereas epithelial cells in zones I, II, and III showed a reduction in staining. Glandular epithelia in zone IV maintained strong positive staining for ER on Day 21.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)


Biol Reprod. 1993 Jul;49(1):24-32.

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Biology of reproduction

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