UMMS Affiliation

Department of Medicine, Division of Geriatric Medicine

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Document Type



Age Factors; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Brain Injuries; Cerebral Infarction; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2; Disease Susceptibility; Female; Humans; Male; Sex Factors


Life Sciences | Medicine and Health Sciences


OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of glycemic status to magnetic resonance imaging indicators of brain pathological changes.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, population-based study of 4,415 men and women without dementia (mean age 76 years) participating in the Age Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study. Glycemic status groups included the following: type 2 diabetes (self-report of diabetes, use of diabetes medications, or fasting blood glucose > or =7.0 mmol/l [11.1%]); impaired fasting glucose (IFG) (fasting blood glucose 5.6-6.9 mmol/l [36.2%]); and normoglycemic (52.7%). Outcomes were total brain volume, white and gray matter volume, white matter lesion (WML) volume, and presence of cerebral infarcts.

RESULTS: After adjustment for demographic and cardiovascular risk factors, participants with type 2 diabetes had significantly lower total brain volume (72.2 vs. 71.5%; P < 0.001) and lower gray and white matter volumes (45.1 vs. 44.9%, P < 0.01 and 25.7 vs. 25.3%, P < 0.001, respectively) and were more likely to have single (odds ratio 1.45 [95% CI 1.14-1.85]) or multiple (2.27 [1.60-3.23]) cerebral infarcts compared with normoglycemic participants. Longer duration of type 2 diabetes was associated with lower total brain volume and gray and white matter volume, higher WML volume (all P(trend) < 0.05), and a greater likelihood of single and multiple cerebral infarcts (all P(trend) < 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS: Type 2 diabetic participants have more pronounced brain atrophy and are more likely to have cerebral infarcts. Duration of type 2 diabetes is associated with brain changes, suggesting that type 2 diabetes has a cumulative effect on the brain.

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© 2009 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered. See for details.

DOI of Published Version



Diabetes Care. 2009 Sep;32(9):1608-13. Epub 2009 Jun 9. Link to article on publisher's site

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Diabetes care

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Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 License.



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