A randomized clinical trial comparing low-glycemic index versus ADA dietary education among individuals with type 2 diabetes
Division of Preventive and Behavioral Medicine
Adult; Aged; Blood Glucose; Body Mass Index; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2; *Diabetic Diet; Exercise; Female; *Glycemic Index; Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated; Humans; Hypoglycemic Agents; Linear Models; Lipoproteins, HDL; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Middle Aged; Nutritional Sciences; Odds Ratio; Treatment Outcome; Triglycerides; Weight Loss
Community Health and Preventive Medicine | Dietetics and Clinical Nutrition | Endocrine System Diseases | Life Sciences | Medicine and Health Sciences
OBJECTIVE: We compared the effects of a low glycemic index (GI) diet with the American Diabetes Association (ADA) diet on glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) among individuals with type 2 diabetes.
METHODS: Forty individuals with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes were randomized to a low-GI or an ADA diet. The intervention, consisting of eight educational sessions (monthly for the first 6 mo and then at months 8 and 10), focused on a low-GI or an ADA diet. Data on demographics, diet, physical activity, psychosocial factors, and diabetes medication use were assessed at baseline and 6 and 12 mo. Generalized linear mixed models were used to compare the two groups on HbA1c, diabetic medication use, blood lipids, weight, diet, and physical activity.
RESULTS: Participants (53% female, mean age 53.5 y) were predominantly white with a mean body mass index of 35.8 kg/m(2). Although both interventions achieved similar reductions in mean HbA1c at 6 mo and 12 mo, the low-GI diet group was less likely to add or increase dosage of diabetic medications (odds ratio 0.26, P = 0.01). Improvements in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerols, and weight loss were similar between groups.
CONCLUSION: Compared with the ADA diet, the low-GI diet achieved equivalent control of HbA1c using less diabetic medication. Despite its limited size, this trial suggests that a low-GI diet is a viable alternative to the ADA diet. Findings should be evaluated in a larger randomized controlled trial.
DOI of Published Version
Nutrition. 2008 Jan;24(1):45-56. Link to article on publisher's site
Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.)
Ma Y, Olendzki BC, Merriam PA, Chiriboga DE, Culver AL, Li W, Hebert JR, Ockene IS, Griffith JA, Pagoto SL. (2008). A randomized clinical trial comparing low-glycemic index versus ADA dietary education among individuals with type 2 diabetes. Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2007.10.008. Retrieved from https://escholarship.umassmed.edu/oapubs/1983