Department of Clinical Microbiology
Ampicillin Resistance; Anti-Bacterial Agents; Cefaclor; Cefamandole; Cephalexin; Cephalothin; Chloramphenicol Resistance; Drug Combinations; Drug Resistance, Microbial; Erythromycin; Haemophilus influenzae; Humans; Rifampin; Sulfamethoxazole; Tetracycline Resistance; Trimethoprim; Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Combination; United States; beta-Lactamases
A total of 2,811 clinical isolates of Haemophilus influenzae were obtained during 1986 from 30 medical centers and one nationwide private independent laboratory in the United States. Among these, 757 (26.9%) were type b strains. The overall rate of beta-lactamase-mediated ampicillin resistance was 20.0%. Type b strains were approximately twice as likely as non-type b strains to produce beta-lactamase (31.7 versus 15.6%). The MICs of 12 antimicrobial agents were determined for all isolates. Ampicillin resistance among strains that lacked beta-lactamase activity was extremely uncommon (0.1%). Percentages of study isolates susceptible to cefamandole, cefaclor, cephalothin, and cephalexin were 98.7, 94.5, 87.3, and 43.3%, respectively. For 14 strains (0.5% of the total), chloramphenicol MICs were greater than or equal to 8.0 micrograms, and thus the strains were considered resistant. All of these resistant strains produced chloramphenicol acetyltransferase. In addition, all 14 strains were resistant to tetracycline; 11 produced beta-lactamase. The percentage of isolates susceptible to tetracycline was 97.7%. In contrast, erythromycin and sulfisoxazole were relatively inactive. The combination of erythromycin-sulfisoxazole (1/64) was more active than erythromycin alone but essentially equivalent in activity to sulfisoxazole alone. Finally, small numbers of clinical isolates of H. influenzae were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and rifampin.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1988 Feb;32(2):180-5.
Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy
Doern, Gary V.; Jorgensen, James H.; Thornsberry, Clyde; Preston, David A.; Tubert, Tracy A.; Redding, Judith S.; and Maher, Louise A., "National collaborative study of the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among clinical isolates of Haemophilus influenzae" (1988). Open Access Articles. 193.