DNA vaccines: protective immunizations by parenteral, mucosal, and gene-gun inoculations

UMMS Affiliation

Department of Pathology

Publication Date


Document Type



Animals; Cell Line; Chickens; DNA, Viral; Genes, Viral; Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus; Hemagglutinins, Viral; Influenza A virus; Influenza in Birds; Injections; Injections, Intramuscular; Injections, Intravenous; Mice; Mice, Inbred BALB C; Mucous Membrane; Orthomyxoviridae Infections; Restriction Mapping; Transfection; Viral Envelope Proteins


Life Sciences | Medicine and Health Sciences


Plasmid DNAs expressing influenza virus hemagglutinin glycoproteins have been tested for their ability to raise protective immunity against lethal influenza challenges of the same subtype. In trials using two inoculations of from 50 to 300 micrograms of purified DNA in saline, 67-95% of test mice and 25-63% of test chickens have been protected against a lethal influenza challenge. Parenteral routes of inoculation that achieved good protection included intramuscular and intravenous injections. Successful mucosal routes of vaccination included DNA drops administered to the nares or trachea. By far the most efficient DNA immunizations were achieved by using a gene gun to deliver DNA-coated gold beads to the epidermis. In mice, 95% protection was achieved by two immunizations with beads loaded with as little as 0.4 micrograms of DNA. The breadth of routes supporting successful DNA immunizations, coupled with the very small amounts of DNA required for gene-gun immunizations, highlight the potential of this remarkably simple technique for the development of subunit vaccines.


Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Dec 15;90(24):11478-82.

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

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