Department of Neurology
Animals; Cerebral Cortex; Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists; Guanidines; Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery; Internal Capsule; Ischemic Attack, Transient; Male; Nerve Fibers; Neurons; Neuroprotective Agents; Rats; Rats, Sprague-Dawley; Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate; Reperfusion Injury
Life Sciences | Medicine and Health Sciences
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebral white matter is as sensitive as gray matter to ischemic injury and is probably amenable to pharmacological intervention. In this study we investigated whether an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist, CNS 1102, protects not only cerebral gray matter but also white matter from ischemic injury. METHODS: Ten rats underwent 15 minutes of temporary focal ischemia and were blindly assigned to CNS 1102 intravenous bolus injection (1. 13 mg/kg) followed by intravenous infusion (0.33 mg/kg per hour) for 3.75 hours or to vehicle (n=5 per group) immediately after reperfusion. Seventy-two hours after ischemia, the animals were perfusion fixed for histology. The severity of neuronal necrosis in the cortex and striatum was semiquantitatively analyzed. The Luxol fast blue-periodic acid Schiff stain and Bielschowsky's silver stain were used to measure optical densities (ODs) of myelin and axons, respectively, in the internal capsule of both hemispheres, and the OD ratio was calculated to reflect the severity of white matter damage. RESULTS: Neuronal damage in both the cortex and the striatum was significantly better in the drug-treated group than in the placebo group (P<0.05). The OD ratio of both the axons (0.93+/-0.08 versus 0.61+/-0.18; P<0.01) and the myelin sheath (0.95+/-0.07 versus 0.67+/-0.19; P=0.01) was significantly higher in the CNS 1102 group than in the placebo group. The neurological score was significantly improved in the drug-treated group (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The NMDA receptor antagonist CNS 1102 protects not only cerebral gray matter but also white matter from ischemic injury, most probably by preventing degeneration of white matter structures such as myelin and axons.
Stroke. 2000 Jul;31(7):1709-14.
Stroke; a journal of cerebral circulation
Schabitz, Wolf-Rudiger; Li, Fuhai; and Fisher, Marc, "The N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist CNS 1102 protects cerebral gray and white matter from ischemic injury following temporary focal ischemia in rats" (2000). Open Access Articles. 1661.