Pretreatment with D-myo-inositol trisphosphate reduces infarct size in rabbit hearts: role of inositol trisphosphate receptors and gap junctions in triggering protection

UMMS Affiliation

Department of Emergency Medicine

Publication Date


Document Type



Animals; Calcium Channels; Gap Junctions; Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate; Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptors; Myocardial Infarction; Rabbits; Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear


Life Sciences | Medicine and Health Sciences


Pretreatment with D-myo-inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate hexasodium (D-myo-IP(3)), the sodium salt of the second messenger inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)), is cardioprotective and triggers a reduction of infarct size comparable in magnitude to that obtained with ischemic preconditioning. However, this observation is enigmatic; whereas IP(3) signaling is conventionally initiated by receptor binding, IP(3) receptors are typically considered to be intracellular, and D-myo-IP(3) is membrane-impermeable. We propose that this paradox is explained by the presence of poorly characterized external IP(3) receptors and hypothesize that: 1) infarct size reduction with D-myo-IP(3) is receptor-mediated; and 2) communication via gap junctions and/or hemichannels is required to initiate this protection. To investigate the role of receptor binding, isolated buffer-perfused rabbit hearts underwent 30 min of coronary occlusion (CO) and 2 h of reflow. Prior to CO, hearts received no treatment (controls), D-myo-IP(3), L-myo-IP(3) (enantiomer not recognized by the IP(3) receptor), D-myo-IP(3) + the IP(3) receptor inhibitor xestospongin C (XeC), or XeC alone. Infarct size, assessed by tetrazolium staining, was reduced with D-myo-IP(3) treatment, whereas hearts that received L-myo-IP(3) or D-myo-IP(3) + XeC showed no protection. To evaluate the contribution of gap junctions/hemichannels, additional control and D-myo-IP(3)-treated cohorts received a 5-min infusion of heptanol or Gap 27, two structurally distinct gap junction inhibitors, administered at doses confirmed to attenuate intercellular transmission of a gap junction-permeable fluorescent dye. There was no infarct-sparing effect of D-myo-IP(3) in inhibitor-treated hearts. These data support the concepts that infarct size reduction with D-myo-IP(3) is triggered by receptor binding and that communication via gap junctions/hemichannels is involved in initiating this protection.

DOI of Published Version



J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005 Sep;314(3):1386-92. Epub 2005 May 26. Link to article on publisher's site

Journal/Book/Conference Title

The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics

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Link to Article in PubMed

PubMed ID