UMMS Affiliation

Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Program in Molecular Medicine

Publication Date


Document Type



Amino Acid Sequence; Animals; Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases; Cell Line; *Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic; Gene Transfer Techniques; Humans; MAP Kinase Kinase 3; Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases; *Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases; Molecular Sequence Data; Protein Kinases; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; *Signal Transduction; p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases


Life Sciences | Medicine and Health Sciences


The p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signal transduction pathway is activated by proinflammatory cytokines and environmental stress. The detection of p38 MAP kinase in the nucleus of activated cells suggests that p38 MAP kinase can mediate signaling to the nucleus. To test this hypothesis, we constructed expression vectors for activated MKK3 and MKK6, two MAP kinase kinases that phosphorylate and activate p38 MAP kinase. Expression of activated MKK3 and MKK6 in cultured cells caused a selective increase in p38 MAP kinase activity. Cotransfection experiments demonstrated that p38 MAP kinase activation causes increased reporter gene expression mediated by the transcription factors ATF2 and Elk-1. These data demonstrate that the nucleus is one target of the p38 MAP kinase signal transduction pathway.


Mol Cell Biol. 1996 Mar;16(3):1247-55.

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Molecular and cellular biology

Related Resources

Link to Article in PubMed

PubMed ID