UMMS Affiliation

Department of Family Medicine and Community Health; Lamar Soutter Library

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Bacterial Infections and Mycoses | Epidemiology | Infectious Disease | International Public Health | Library and Information Science | Pediatrics


Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Considering the World Health Organization recommendation to implement child contact management (CCM) for TB, we conducted a mixed-methods systematic review to summarize CCM implementation, challenges, predictors, and recommendations. We searched the electronic databases of PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science for studies published between 1996-2017 that reported CCM data from high TB-burden countries. Protocol details for this systematic review were registered on PROSPERO: International prospective register of systematic reviews (#CRD42016038105). We formulated a search strategy to identify all available studies, published in English that specifically targeted a) population: child contacts (<15 >years) exposed to TB in the household from programmatic settings in high burden countries (HBCs), b) interventions: CCM strategies implemented within the CCM cascade, c) comparisons: CCM strategies studied and compared in HBCs, and d) outcomes: monitoring and evaluation of CCM outcomes reported in the literature for each CCM cascade step. We included any quantitative, qualitative, mixed-methods study design except for randomized-controlled trials, editorials or commentaries. Thirty-seven studies were reviewed. Child contact losses varied greatly for screening, isoniazid preventive therapy initiation, and completion. CCM challenges included: infrastructure, knowledge, attitudes, stigma, access, competing priorities, and treatment. CCM recommendations included: health system strengthening, health education, and improved preventive therapy. Identified predictors included: index case and clinic characteristics, perceptions of barriers and risk, costs, and treatment characteristics. CCM lacks standardization resulting in common challenges and losses throughout the CCM cascade. Prioritization of a CCM-friendly healthcare environment with improved CCM processes and tools; health education; and active, evidence-based strategies can decrease barriers. A focused approach toward every aspect of the CCM cascade will likely diminish losses throughout the CCM cascade and ultimately decrease TB related morbidity and mortality in children.


Child health, Tuberculosis, Tuberculosis diagnosis and management, Health screening, Isoniazid, Health education and awareness, Systematic reviews, Qualitative studies

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Copyright: © 2017 Szkwarko et al.

DOI of Published Version



PLoS One. 2017 Aug 1;12(8):e0182185. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0182185. eCollection 2017. Link to article on publisher's website

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PLoS One

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

journal.pone.0182185.s001.pdf (371 kB)
S1 File. Search strategies for electronic databases.

journal.pone.0182185.s002.pdf (331 kB)
S2 File. PRISMA checklist.

journal.pone.0182185.s003.xlsb (27 kB)
S3 File. CCM dataset July 2017.