Purpose: Our study examines the etiological profile, clinical and imaging features of renal artery pseudo aneurysms (RAPs), as well as the efficacy and need for the angioembolization of RAPs in a resource-constrained setting.
Materials and Methods: A total of 36 patients with RAPs were included in our study. Initial diagnosis was made by Doppler Ultrasonography (USG) followed by CT renal angiography in all cases. DSA was performed in 28 patients, as eight patients showed spontaneous resolution by thrombosis on immediate pre-procedure Doppler study. Angioembolization with a microcoil was performed for 30 aneurysms in 28 patients. Technical success was confirmed at the end of the procedure by a renal angiogram. To assess clinical success, we followed up with patients (with clinical and Doppler USG) for a period of six months.
Results: The most common cause of RAPs in our study was percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), seen in 21 patients (58.3%), followed by trauma (25%), and partial nephrectomy (11%). All patients presented to us were within 21 days of the etiological event of hematuria or flank pain. USG was able to detect the RAP in 22 cases (61%). CT renal angiography was diagnostic in all patients but failed to demonstrate two additional aneurysms in one patient. RAP size ≤ 4 mm and absence of brisk filling on CT renal angiography was associated with spontaneous resolution in eight patients, probably an indication of the beginning of spontaneous thrombosis. Angioembolization was done using microcoils and showed 100% technical and clinical success.
Conclusion: PCNL is the most common etiological factor for RAPs in our setting. Such patients should have a Doppler USG done prior to discharge from the hospital. CT angiographic flow dynamics (delayed peak enhancement) may be helpful in the identification of RAPs with a high probability of subsequent spontaneous resolution. Angiography followed by embolization using microcoils is the most effective and safe treatment for RAPs with no significant loss of renal parenchyma, although cost remains a limiting factor in our setting.
Renal artery pseudo aneurysm (RAP), percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN), digital subtraction angiography (DSA), renal arteriovenous fistula (RAVF)
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© 2021 Choh, Bhat, Shah, Hafeez, Shera, Gojwari, Shaheen. This open access article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
The authors would like to acknowledge the Department of Cardiology, SKIMS, Srinagar and Department of Nephrology, SKIMS, Srinagar.
Choh N, Bhat M, Shah O, Hafeez I, Shera F, Gojwari T, Shaheen F. Renal Artery Pseudo-aneurysms: Do All of Them Require Endovascular Management?. Journal of Global Radiology 2021;7(1):1132. https://doi.org/10.7191/jgr.2021.1132. Retrieved from https://escholarship.umassmed.edu/jgr/vol7/iss1/7