Article Type

State of Radiology Country Report

Publication Date





Purpose: Radiology global outreach programs have increased in recent years but progressed more slowly than other specialties. Establishing radiology services is increasingly recognized as a priority in resource-limited settings. Myanmar has a tremendous disease burden that is treatable with interventional radiology (IR) techniques, and aims to grow and effectively integrate this service into its public healthcare sector. Through collaborations between Asia Pacific Society of Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology (APSCVIR) and Myanmar Radiological Society (MRS), the field of IR has grown exponentially over recent years. This study aims to provide a Myanmar national IR report on the current trends and future challenges.

Methods and materials: Descriptive variables across five domains (facility and equipment, workforce, supplies, infrastructure, and casemix) from the four public sector hospitals with IR capability were obtained between 2016-2019. The four hospitals were Yangon General Hospital (YGH), Yangon Specialty Hospital (YSH), Mandalay General Hospital (MGH), and Defense Services General Hospital (DSGH). Data were analyzed to demonstrate progress in IR and the differing casemix.

Results: There are currently four IR-capable hospitals and nine interventional radiologists across Myanmar’s public healthcare sector. IR case volumes tripled from 514 cases in 2016 to more than 1,500 cases in 2019. The three most common procedures performed were trans-arterial chemoembolization (TACE, 63%), bronchial arterial embolization (BAE, 7.7%), and drainages (7.7%). Significant challenges to the growth and adoption of IR services span the domains of infrastructure, equipment and supplies, workforce, and IR awareness, among other clinical specialties.

Conclusion: Myanmar’s healthcare priorities, coupled with international radiological outreach programs, have led to rapid growth of IR. The exponential growth in case volumes is promising for Myanmar and other developing countries. But to widen the scope of practice and integrate the service within local clinical workflows, a holistic effort that addresses multiple domains is needed in the future.


International radiological outreach, Myanmar healthcare system, Interventional radiology, Asia Pacific Society of Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology, IR outreach

Rights and Permissions

© 2021 Kuo, Aung, Hnin, Wint, Aung, Ya & Tan. This open access article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.


The authors would like to thank the Asia Pacific Society of Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology (APSCVIR) and particularly Dr. Yasuaki Arai and Dr. Joseph Yun Hwan Kim for their contribution towards this international IR outreach. The authors are grateful to the Myanmar Radiological Society (MRS) for its longstanding partnership, and the Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe (CIRSE) and Society of Interventional Radiology (SIR) for their annual outreach and collaborative activities.

Corresponding Author(s)

Bien Soo Tan (FRCR), Department of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Division of Radiological Sciences, Singapore General Hospital, 20 College Road, Singapore 169608, Republic of Singapore; tan.bien.soo@singhealth.com.sg

Figure 2-6.xlsx (62 kB)
Figures 2-6

Figure 1.jpg (4023 kB)
Figure 1

Table 1.docx (78 kB)
Table 1