UMMS Affiliation

Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology

Publication Date


Document Type



Drosophila; Immunity; Carrier Proteins; Peptidoglycan; Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides; Signal Transduction


Immunology and Infectious Disease


The Drosophila immune response is characterized by the rapid and robust production of a battery of antimicrobial peptides immediately following infection. The genes encoding these antimicrobial peptides are controlled by two NF-κB signaling pathways that respond to microbial infection. The IMD pathway is triggered by DAP-type peptidoglycan, from the cell wall of most Gram-negative and certain Gram-positive bacteria, and activates the NF-κB precursor protein Relish. The Toll pathway, on the other hand, is stimulated by lysine-type peptidoglycan from many Gram-positive bacteria, β 1,3 glucans from many fungi, as well as by microbial proteases. Toll signaling leads to the activation and nuclear translocation of DIF or Dorsal, two other NF-κB homologs. This review presents our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in microbial recognition and signal transduction in these two innate immune pathways.


Silverman N., Paquette N., Aggarwal K. Specificity and signaling in the Drosophila immune response. Invertebrate Survival Journal, 6: 163-174, 2009. Link to article on publisher's website

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Infectious Diseases and Immunology Publications