IL-10 enhances MD-2 and CD14 expression in monocytes and the proteins are increased and correlated in HIV-infected patients

UMMS Affiliation

Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease & Immunology

Publication Date


Document Type



Immunity | Immunology and Infectious Disease | Immunology of Infectious Disease | Infectious Disease | Virology


Soluble proteins that bind LPS, like myeloid differentiation-2 (MD-2) and CD14, have essential roles in regulating LPS signaling through TLR4. During a gram-negative bacterial infection, the host may control the response by adjusting the levels of soluble MD-2 and CD14. To address the surface expression of MD-2 on human leukocytes, we developed a mAb, IIC1, that recognized MD-2 both free and when bound to TLR4. MD-2 was found on the surface of freshly isolated monocytes, on a subpopulation of CD19(+) B-cells and on CD15(+) neutrophils. LPS transiently reduced the MD-2 levels on monocytes, which is most likely due to endocytosis of the LPS receptor complex since MD-2 colocalized with TLR4 in early endosomes after LPS stimulation. In the absence of LPS, MD-2 partly colocalized with TLR4 in Golgi trans and medial compartments. Cultivating monocytes for 18-20 h resulted in loss of MD-2 expression on the surface, which was reversed either by LPS or IL-10. Furthermore, addition of IL-10, but not LPS, resulted in a considerable increase in mRNA for both MD-2 and CD14. Using ELISA, we demonstrated that IL-10 had a profound dose- and time-related effect on the release of soluble MD-2 and soluble CD14 from monocytes. In HIV-infected patients, the amounts of MD-2, CD14, and IL-10 increased significantly in the patient group with AIDS. Of interest, we found that IL-10, CD14, and MD-2 levels were positively correlated, suggesting that IL-10 may be a driving force for increased release of MD-2 and CD14 during systemic inflammation.

DOI of Published Version



J Immunol. 2009 Jan 1;182(1):588-95.

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)


Full list of authors omitted for brevity. For full list see article.

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