Immunological memory after exposure to variola virus, monkeypox virus, and vaccinia virus
Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology; Center for Infectious Disease and Vaccine Research
Immunity | Immunology and Infectious Disease | Immunology of Infectious Disease | Infectious Disease
We compared cellular and humoral immunity to vaccinia virus (VV) in individuals exposed to 3 different orthopoxviruses: 154 individuals previously vaccinated with VV, 7 individuals with a history of monkeypox virus infection, and 8 individuals with a history of variola virus infection. Among individuals vaccinated > 20 years prior, 9 (14%) of 66 individuals demonstrated VV-specific interferon (IFN)- gamma enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay responses; 21 (50%) of 42 had lymphoproliferative (LP) responses, and 29 (97%) of 30 had VV-specific neutralizing antibodies. One year after monkeypox virus infection, 6 of 7 individuals had IFN- gamma ELISPOT responses, all had VV-specific LP responses, and 3 of 7 had VV-specific neutralizing antibodies. Of 8 individuals with a history of variola virus infection, 1 had a VV-specific IFN- gamma ELISPOT response, 4 had LP responses against whole VV, 7 had LP responses against heat-denatured vaccinia antigen, and 7 had VV-specific neutralizing antibodies. Survivors of variola virus infection demonstrated VV-specific CD4 memory cell responses and neutralizing antibodies > 40 years after infection.
DOI of Published Version
J Infect Dis. 2007 Apr 15;195(8):1151-9. Epub 2007 Mar 5. DOI: 10.1086/512161 Link to article on publisher's site
The Journal of infectious diseases
Sivapalasingam S, Kennedy JS, Borkowsky W, Valentine F, Zhan M, Pazoles PP, Paolino A, Ennis FA, Steigbigel NH. (2007). Immunological memory after exposure to variola virus, monkeypox virus, and vaccinia virus. Infectious Diseases and Immunology Publications. https://doi.org/10.1086/512161. Retrieved from https://escholarship.umassmed.edu/infdis_pp/256