Gadolinium-based compounds induce NLRP3-dependent IL-1beta production and peritoneal inflammation

UMMS Affiliation

Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology; Department of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology

Publication Date


Document Type



Immunity | Immunology and Infectious Disease | Musculoskeletal Diseases | Pathological Conditions, Signs and Symptoms | Rheumatology


OBJECTIVE: Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is a progressive fibrosing disorder that may develop in patients with chronic kidney disease after administration of gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agents (GBCAs). In the setting of impaired renal clearance of GBCAs, Gd deposits in various tissues and fibrosis subsequently develops. However, the precise mechanism by which fibrosis occurs in NSF is incompletely understood. Because other profibrotic agents, such as silica or asbestos, activate the nucleotide-binding oligomerisation domain (NOD)-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome and initiate interleukin (IL)-1beta release with the subsequent development of fibrosis, we evaluated the effects of GBCAs on inflammasome activation.

METHODS: Bone marrow derived macrophages from C57BL/6, Nlrp3-/- and Asc-/- mice were incubated with three Gd-containing compounds and IL-1beta activation and secretion was detected by ELISA and western blot analysis. Inflammasome activation and regulation was investigated in IL-4- and interferon (IFN)gamma-polarised macrophages by ELISA, quantitative real time (qRT)-PCR and NanoString nCounter analysis. Furthermore, C57BL/6 and Nlrp3-/-mice were intraperitoneally injected with GBCA and recruitment of inflammatory cells to the peritoneum was analysed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS).

RESULTS: Free Gd and GBCAs activate the NLRP3 inflammasome and induce IL-1beta secretion in vitro. Gd-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid also induces the recruitment of neutrophils and inflammatory monocytes to the peritoneum in vivo. Gd activated IL-4-polarised macrophages more effectively than IFNgamma-polarised macrophages, which preferentially expressed genes known to downregulate inflammasome activity.

CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that Gd released from GBCAs triggers a NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent inflammatory response that leads to fibrosis in an appropriate clinical setting. The preferential activation of IL-4-differentiated macrophages is consistent with the predominantly fibrotic presentation of NSF. already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

DOI of Published Version



Ann Rheum Dis. 2014 Jun 9. pii: annrheumdis-2013-204900. doi: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2013-204900.Link to article on publisher's site

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Annals of the rheumatic diseases

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Link to Article in PubMed

PubMed ID