Nasal Morphology of the Chinese: Three-Dimensional Reference Values for Rhinoplasty

UMMS Affiliation

Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Research Center; Shriver Center

Publication Date


Document Type



Body Regions | Epidemiology | Otolaryngology | Surgical Procedures, Operative


OBJECTIVE: To determine normative nasal measurements for Chinese young adults, conditioned on demographics.

STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional descriptive study.

SETTING: A university hospital.

SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Three-dimensional (3D) photographs were captured from 103 Chinese subjects between 18 and 35 years of age using a commercial stereophotographic system. Anthropometric landmarks were identified on these 3D surface images, and measurements suitable for nasal analysis were performed and contrasted against established Caucasian norms. Gender differences in anthropometric dimensions were also analyzed.

RESULTS: Normative data for these measurements are made available. Linear nasal measurements, except those for mid-columella length, were significantly larger in men than in women; further, the nasal tip angle and nasofrontal angle were significantly larger in Chinese women. Contrasts of these new data against published Caucasian norms revealed dimensions that differ for these 2 groups. The Chinese normative mean values for morphological nose width, nasal tip angle, nasofrontal angle, and alar slope angle exceeded those reported for North American Caucasians.

CONCLUSIONS: Gender-specific normative data for the Chinese nose were established in this study to provide a useful tool for surgeons in dealing with rhinoplasty. Moreover, the Chinese nasal anthropometric measurements in this study are broader and flatter than those reported for North American Caucasians.

DOI of Published Version



Jayaratne YS, Deutsch CK, Zwahlen RA. Nasal Morphology of the Chinese: Three-Dimensional Reference Values for Rhinoplasty. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2014 Feb 13;150(6):956-961. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 24524953. Link to article on publisher's site

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery

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Link to Article in PubMed

PubMed ID