UMMS Affiliation

Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Research Center; Shriver Center

Publication Date


Document Type



Adolescent; Adult; *Anthropometry; Asian Continental Ancestry Group; Eye; Female; Hong Kong; Humans; *Image Processing, Computer-Assisted; Male; Orbit; *Photogrammetry; Sex Characteristics; Young Adult


Body Regions | Diagnosis | Epidemiology | Sense Organs


Measurement of periocular structures is of value in several clinical specialties including ophthalmology, optometry, medical and clinical genetics, oculoplastic surgery, and traumatology. Therefore we aimed to determine the periocular anthropometric norms for Chinese young adults using a noninvasive 3D stereophotography system. Craniofacial images using the 3dMDface system were acquired for 103 Chinese subjects (51 males and 52 females) between the ages of 18 and 35 years. Anthropometric landmarks were identified on these digital images according to standard definitions, and linear distances between these landmarks were calculated. It was found that ocular measurements were significantly larger in Chinese males than females for intercanthal width, biocular width, and eye fissure lengths. No gender differences were found in the eye fissure height and the canthal index which ranged between 43 and 44. Both right and left eye fissure height-length ratios were significantly larger in females. This is the first study to employ 3D stereophotogrammetry to create a database of anthropometric normative data for periocular measurements. These data would be useful for clinical interpretation of periocular pathology and serve as reference values when planning aesthetic and posttraumatic surgical interventions.

DOI of Published Version



Jayaratne YS, Deutsch CK, Zwahlen RA. Normative findings for periocular anthropometric measurements among Chinese young adults in Hong Kong. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:821428. doi: 10.1155/2013/821428. Epub 2013 Jul 17. PubMed PMID: 23957005; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3730197. Link to article on publisher's site

Journal/Book/Conference Title

BioMed research international

Related Resources

Link to Article in PubMed

PubMed ID


Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.