Center for Health Policy and Research (CHPR) Publications


The Hartford study of supported employment for persons with severe mental illness

UMMS Affiliation

Department of Family Medicine and Community Health; Center for Health Policy and Research; Clinical and Population Health Research

Publication Date


Document Type



Adult; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; *Employment, Supported; Female; Humans; Male; Mental Disorders; Severity of Illness Index


Health Services Administration | Health Services Research | Public Health


The authors compared 3 approaches to vocational rehabilitation for severe mental illness (SMI): the individual placement and support (IPS) model of supported employment, a psychosocial rehabilitation (PSR) program, and standard services. Two hundred four unemployed clients (46% African American, 30% Latino) with SMI were randomly assigned to IPS, PSR, or standard services and followed for 2 years. Clients in IPS had significantly better employment outcomes than clients in PSR and standard services, including more competitive work (73.9% vs. 18.2% vs. 27.5%, respectively) and any paid work (73.9% vs. 34.8% vs. 53.6%, respectively). There were few differences in nonvocational outcomes between programs. IPS is a more effective model than PSR or standard brokered vocational services for improving employment outcomes in clients with SMI.

DOI of Published Version



J Consult Clin Psychol. 2004 Jun;72(3):479-90. Link to article on publisher's site

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Journal of consulting and clinical psychology

Related Resources

Link to Article in PubMed