Women with HIV infection: the three waves of scientific inquiry

UMMS Affiliation

Graduate School of Nursing; Center for Infectious Disease and Vaccine Research

Publication Date


Document Type



Female; HIV Infections; History, 20th Century; Humans; Research Design; United States; Women's Health


Nursing | Public Health and Community Nursing


Initial efforts to curtail the spread of HIV infection to women failed. Consequently, women are the fastest growing population newly infected with HIV. This article presents a historical look at the waves of scientific inquiry that directed research on HIV infection among women. The author proposes three distinct waves. Each has been shaped by movement within the scientific community away from traditional biomedical and public health approaches toward feminist strategies that embrace the social, political, and cultural forces that influence women's health. These waves provide both valuable insights for nurses new to the field of HIV and a framework to guide future research on women with HIV infection.


J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care. 2000 Sep-Oct;11(5):19-28.

Journal/Book/Conference Title

The Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care : JANAC

Related Resources

Link to article in PubMed

PubMed ID