Differences in hope, core self-evaluations, emotional well-being, and health risk behaviors in freshman university students
Division of Preventive and Behavioral Medicine, Department of Medicine; Graduate School of Nursing
Health Psychology | Mental and Social Health | Nursing | Psychiatry and Psychology | Psychological Phenomena and Processes
The purpose of this cross-sectional anonymous survey study was to explore differences in hope, core self-evaluations (CSE), emotional well-being, health risk behaviors, and academic performance by gender, race, and social desirability in a sample of freshman university students. Four hundred and ninety-five freshmen ages 18 to 21 (M age 18.4), 67% female attending a large public university in the Northeast participated in the study. A Health Risk Behavior Score, with scores ranging from 3 to 9, was calculated by creating risk categories for drug use, alcohol use, and sexual risk-taking. Hope and health risk behaviors did not differ by gender, however, men reported higher CSE and emotional well-being. There were racial differences in hope, CSE, emotional well-being, and health risk behaviors. Nurses and researchers should consider gender and racial differences when designing or implementing hope interventions. Future researchers should compare their findings with ours for patterns or convergence and divergence and aim for larger representative samples of nonwhite groups. These are necessary next steps to advance the understanding of the role hope may play in promoting mental health among diverse college students.
core self‐evaluations, emotional well‐being, hope, sexual risk‐taking, substance use, young adults
DOI of Published Version
Griggs S, Crawford SL. Differences in hope, core self-evaluations, emotional well-being, and health risk behaviors in freshman university students. Nurs Forum. 2019 Oct;54(4):505-512. doi: 10.1111/nuf.12364. Epub 2019 Jul 16. PMID: 31309592; PMCID: PMC6856360. Link to article on publisher's site
Griggs S, Crawford SL. (2019). Differences in hope, core self-evaluations, emotional well-being, and health risk behaviors in freshman university students. Tan Chingfen Graduate School of Nursing Publications. https://doi.org/10.1111/nuf.12364. Retrieved from https://escholarship.umassmed.edu/gsn_pp/134