Graduate School of Nursing Dissertations

Publication Date


Document Type

Dissertation, Doctoral


Graduate School of Nursing

Dissertation Committee Chair

Susan Sullivan-Bolyai


Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus, patient simulation, patient education, family caregivers, grandparents, T1DM management and support, HPS education, mixed-methods, Patient Simulation, Family, Family Nursing, Caregivers, Fear

Subject Categories

Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism | Family Practice Nursing | Health Services Administration | Medical Education | Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases | Pediatric Nursing | Pediatrics | Public Health and Community Nursing | Public Health Education and Promotion


The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility of using human patient simulation (HPS) to teach Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) management to grandparents of grandchildren with T1DM. Thirty grandparents (11 male, 19 female) of young grandchildren (aged 12 and under) with T1DM were recruited from an urban medical center. Experimental group (n = 14) grandparents received hands-on visual T1DM management education using an HPS intervention, and control group (n = 16) grandparents received similar education using a non-HPS intervention.

Post-intervention, researchers interviewed twelve grandparents (50% HPS, 50% non-HPS) who scored highest and lowest on the Hypoglycemia Fear Survey. Using a mixed-method design, researchers integrated study instrument data and post-intervention interview data to describe grandparent’s experience learning T1DM management. Post-intervention, grandparent scores for knowledge, confidence, and fear showed no significant difference by group assignment, however, all grandparent scores showed improvement from Time 1 to Time 2. Grandparents described how taking part in T1DM education heightened their awareness of T1DM risks. GP T1DM knowledge gains aided GPs to make sense of T1DM risks. Newfound T1DM knowledge enhanced GP T1DM management confidence. Improved T1DM knowledge and confidence helped to defuse T1DM management fear. Although study instruments did not measure significant difference between grandparents who received the HPS intervention and those who did not, the consistency of larger HPS-taught grandparent score improvement is suggestive of a benefit for HPS.


Material from this dissertation has been published in: Maguire LL, Crawford S, Sullivan-Bolyai S. Grandparent Education Through Simulation-Diabetes. Diabetes Educ. 2015 Dec;41(6):678-89. doi: 10.1177/0145721715607982. Epub 2015 Sep 30. PubMed PMID: 26424677.



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