Graduate School of Nursing Dissertations

Publication Date


Document Type

Dissertation, Doctoral


Graduate School of Nursing

Dissertation Committee Chair

James A. Fain


Diabetes Mellitus, Motor Activity, Self Efficacy, Nurse-Patient Relations, Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring

Subject Categories

Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms | Endocrine System Diseases | Nursing


Up to 60% of individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) do not participate in regular physical activity (PA) despite the known benefits. To encourage these individuals to increase PA behavior, this study tested the feasibility and implementation of a nurse-directed counseling intervention using continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS). The study used a framework derived from self-efficacy theory to 1) compare changes in self-efficacy, BP and activity counts between participants receiving CGMS counseling and standard T2DM counseling, 2) examine relationships between PA self-efficacy and BP and activity counts, 3) evaluate recruitment, retention, and screening strategies, and 4) assess instrument reliability and utility.

Adults (N=52) with T2DM (non-insulin requiring, inactive) were randomized to intervention (n=27) or control groups (n=25). Both groups received 90 minutes of diabetes education with a follow-up phone call at 4 weeks. The intervention group also received feedback on their own CGMS graphs and a role model's graph depicting PA related reductions in glucose levels. PA benefits/barriers were discussed and goals were set. Outcomes were recorded at 1 and 8 weeks.

Participants were older (57±14 years), predominantly (90%) white, about half (52%) female, and had diabetes for 8±7 years. Relative to the control group, participants receiving the intervention had higher self-efficacy scores at 8 weeks, indicating more confidence in sticking to a PA program. Their light/sedentary activity minutes decreased significantly and moderate activity minutes increased significantly; systolic BP, A1c and BMI decreased significantly. Only self-efficacy for "Sticking to it" was positively associated with moderate activity. The most successful recruitment media was multiple newspaper press releases. Most referrals came from endocrinology physicians. Of 231 study volunteers, 106 did not meet the criterion of A1c≥7.5%.

These data suggest that CGMS feedback is feasible for counseling individuals with T2DM to improve PA and may improve risk factors for diabetes-related complications. Newspaper press releases are effective for recruiting participants with T2DM. Less restrictive inclusion criteria in a larger study may allow more participation by sedentary individuals with T2DM but may reduce effect size. CGMS was well tolerated and its data aided diabetes-related teaching.



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