Molecular basis of T-cell differentiation
Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences; Program in Molecular Medicine
Medical Subject Headings
Cell Differentiation; JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases; Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases; Signal Transduction; T-Lymphocytes; Th1 Cells; Th2 Cells; Transcription Factors; p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
Life Sciences | Medicine and Health Sciences
In summary, a multitude of regulatory systems are employed to cause the selective activation of target cytokine genes in Th1 and Th2 effector cells. These mechanisms involve both positive and negative regulation and employ at least three kinds of mechanisms. In the first, selective expression of transcription factors such as GATA3 in Th2 cells and the homeobox gene HLX in Th1 cells occurs, and appears in both cases to play a causal role. Another example of this would be c-maf, discovered by the Glimcher laboratory. A second mechanism is by the selective accumulation of protein through posttranscriptional mechanisms. Thus, junB accumulates in Th2 cells despite the fact that the junB mRNA levels are not different between Th1 and Th2 cells. Finally, the selective use of signaling pathways, in the case studied here MAP kinase pathways, leads to the selective activation of target genes. We believe that transcriptional up-regulation of rac2 leads to the coupling of both the p38 and JNK MAP kinase pathways to the T-cell receptor and/or costimulatory receptors, thereby providing a lineage-specific signal.
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Citation: Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1999;64:563-71.
Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology
Flavell, Richard A.; Li, B.; Dong, Chen; Lu, Hong-Tao; Yang, Derek D.; Enslen, Herve; Tournier, Cathy; Whitmarsh, Alan J.; Wysk, Mark Allen; Conze, D.; Rincon, Mercedes; and Davis, Roger J., "Molecular basis of T-cell differentiation" (2001). GSBS Student Publications. 294.