GSBS Student Publications


IKKepsilon and TBK1 are essential components of the IRF3 signaling pathway

Student Author(s)

Daniel C. Rowe

UMMS Affiliation

Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology



Document Type


Medical Subject Headings

Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport; Chemokine CCL5; DNA-Binding Proteins; *Drosophila Proteins; Gene Expression Regulation; Humans; I-kappa B Kinase; Immunity, Natural; Interferon Regulatory Factor-3; Interferon-beta; Membrane Glycoproteins; NF-kappa B; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; RNA Interference; Receptors, Cell Surface; Signal Transduction; Toll-Like Receptor 3; Toll-Like Receptors; Transcription Factors; Virus Diseases


Immunology and Infectious Disease | Life Sciences | Medicine and Health Sciences


The transcription factors interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and NF-kappaB are required for the expression of many genes involved in the innate immune response. Viral infection, or the binding of double-stranded RNA to Toll-like receptor 3, results in the coordinate activation of IRF3 and NF-kappaB. Activation of IRF3 requires signal-dependent phosphorylation, but little is known about the signaling pathway or kinases involved. Here we report that the noncanonical IkappaB kinase homologs, IkappaB kinase-epsilon (IKKepsilon) and TANK-binding kinase-1 (TBK1), which were previously implicated in NF-kappaB activation, are also essential components of the IRF3 signaling pathway. Thus, IKKepsilon and TBK1 have a pivotal role in coordinating the activation of IRF3 and NF-kappaB in the innate immune response.

Rights and Permissions

Citation: Nat Immunol. 2003 May;4(5):491-6. Link to article on publisher's site

DOI of Published Version


Related Resources

Link to article in PubMed

Journal Title

Nature immunology

PubMed ID