Behavioral Disorders and Diabetes-Related Outcomes Among Massachusetts Medicare and Medicaid Beneficiaries

Student Author(s)

Yat (Gary) Leung

UMMS Affiliation

Center for Health Policy and Research

Publication Date


Document Type



Endocrine System Diseases | Health Services Research | Life Sciences | Medicine and Health Sciences | Mental Disorders


Objective: The study investigated whether Massachusetts beneficiaries of Medicare, Medicaid, or both programs who have behavioral disorders have higher rates of diabetes-related complications and hospitalizations.

Methods: This was a retrospective study using merged Medicare and Medicaid claims data from Massachusetts in 2004 and 2005. The study included beneficiaries who had type 2 diabetes, who stayed in nursing homes for fewer than 90 days, and who were enrolled in Medicare or Medicaid (or both) for at least ten months during the study period. ICD-9-CM and Current Procedural Terminology codes were used to identify diabetes complications (eye complications, nephropathy, neuropathy, ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, lower-limb amputations, and diabetes-related hospitalizations). The rates of adverse diabetes outcomes were compared across behavioral disorders as identified by ICD-9-CM diagnoses. While adjusting for case mix, multivariate logistic regressions were performed to compare the odds of adverse diabetes outcomes among people with mental or substance use disorders with those without these disorders.

Results: A total of 106,174 individuals met inclusion criteria. Results from adjusted analysis showed a mixed picture of the relationships between behavioral disorders and adverse diabetes outcomes. Although substance use disorders were associated with higher odds of lower-limb amputations and diabetes-related hospitalizations, beneficiaries with schizophrenia or paranoid states had lower odds of adverse diabetes outcomes.

Conclusions: Medicaid and Medicare beneficiaries with alcohol or drug use disorders had higher rates of adverse diabetes outcomes than other groups, whereas beneficiaries with mental disorders had lower rates of diabetes-related complications. (Psychiatric Services 62:659–665, 2011)

DOI of Published Version



Leung G, Zhang J, Lin WC, Clark RE. Behavioral Disorders and Diabetes-Related Outcomes Among Massachusetts Medicare and Medicaid Beneficiaries. Psychiatric Services 2011 62(6):659-665. DOI 10.1176/appi.ps.62.6.659. Link to article on publisher's website

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Psychiatric Services

Related Resources

Link to article in PubMed

PubMed ID