GSBS Student Publications


Connecting the navigational clock to sun compass input in monarch butterfly brain

Student Author(s)

Dingding Shi; Quan Yuan

GSBS Program


UMMS Affiliation

Department of Neurobiology; Reppert Lab; Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Neuroscience Program



Document Type


Medical Subject Headings

Animal Migration; Animals; Brain; Butterflies; CLOCK Proteins; Circadian Rhythm; Gene Expression; Immunohistochemistry; In Situ Hybridization; Neural Pathways; Photoreceptor Cells, Invertebrate; Phylogeny; Polymerase Chain Reaction; Retina; Rod Opsins; Sunlight; Trans-Activators; Ultraviolet Rays


Neuroscience and Neurobiology


Migratory monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) use a time-compensated sun compass to navigate to their overwintering grounds in Mexico. Although polarized light is one of the celestial cues used for orientation, the spectral content (color) of that light has not been fully explored. We cloned the cDNAs of three visual pigment-encoding opsins (ultraviolet [UV], blue, and long wavelength) and found that all three are expressed uniformly in main retina. The photoreceptors of the polarization-specialized dorsal rim area, on the other hand, are monochromatic for the UV opsin. Behavioral studies support the importance of polarized UV light for flight orientation. Next, we used clock protein expression patterns to identify the location of a circadian clock in the dorsolateral protocerebrum of butterfly brain. To provide a link between the clock and the sun compass, we identified a CRYPTOCHROME-staining neural pathway that likely connects the circadian clock to polarized light input entering brain.

Rights and Permissions

Citation: Neuron. 2005 May 5;46(3):457-67. Link to article on publisher's site

DOI of Published Version


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