CDP/cut is the DNA-binding subunit of histone gene transcription factor HiNF-D: a mechanism for gene regulation at the G1/S phase cell cycle transition point independent of transcription factor E2F

UMMS Affiliation

Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences; Department of Cell Biology

Publication Date


Document Type



Life Sciences | Medicine and Health Sciences


Transcription of the genes for the human histone proteins H4, H3, H2A, H2B, and H1 is activated at the G1/S phase transition of the cell cycle. We have previously shown that the promoter complex HiNF-D, which interacts with cell cycle control elements in multiple histone genes, contains the key cell cycle factors cyclin A, CDC2, and a retinoblastoma (pRB) protein-related protein. However, an intrinsic DNA-binding subunit for HiNF-D was not identified. Many genes that are up-regulated at the G1/S phase boundary are controlled by E2F, a transcription factor that associates with cyclin-, cyclin-dependent kinase-, and pRB-related proteins. Using gel-shift immunoassays, DNase I protection, and oligonucleotide competition analyses, we show that the homeodomain protein CDP/cut, not E2F, is the DNA-binding subunit of the HiNF-D complex. The HiNF-D (CDP/cut) complex with the H4 promoter is immunoreactive with antibodies against CDP/cut and pRB but not p107, whereas the CDP/cut complex with a nonhistone promoter (gp91-phox) reacts only with CDP and p107 antibodies. Thus, CDP/cut complexes at different gene promoters can associate with distinct pRB-related proteins. Transient coexpression assays show that CDP/cut modulates H4 promoter activity via the HiNF-D-binding site. Hence, DNA replication-dependent histone H4 genes are regulated by an E2F-independent mechanism involving a complex of CDP/cut with cyclin A/CDC2/ RB-related proteins.

DOI of Published Version



Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Oct 15;93(21):11516-21.

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

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