GSBS Student Publications


Microtubule-associated protein 1C from brain is a two-headed cytosolic dynein

UMMS Affiliation

Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences; Cell Biology Group; Department of Cell Biology



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Medical Subject Headings

Adenosine Triphosphatases; Animals; *Brain Chemistry; Cattle; Cilia; Dynein ATPase; Flagella; Microscopy, Electron; Microtubule-Associated Proteins; Protein Conformation


Life Sciences | Medicine and Health Sciences


Dynein, an ATPase, is the force-generating protein in cilia and flagella. It has long been speculated that cytoplasmic microtubules contain a related enzyme involved in cell division or in intracellular organelle transport. A 'cytoplasmic dynein' has been described in sea urchin eggs, but because the egg stockpiles precursors for both cytoplasmic and ciliary microtubules, the role of this enzyme in the cell has remained unresolved. We recently found that the microtubule-associated protein (MAP) 1C (ref. 6) from brain is a microtubule-activated ATPase that produces force in the direction corresponding to retrograde organelle transport in the cell. MAP 1C has several similar properties to ciliary and flagellar dynein. Here we show directly, using scanning transmission electron microscopy, that MAP 1C is structurally equivalent to the ciliary and flagellar enzyme and is the long-sought cytoplasmic analogue of this enzyme.

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Citation: Nature. 1988 Apr 7;332(6164):561-3. Link to article on publisher's site

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