Regulation of GLUT1-mediated sugar transport by an antiport/uniport switch mechanism

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Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology; Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology

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Life Sciences | Medicine and Health Sciences


Avian erythrocyte sugar transport is stimulated during anoxia and during exposure to inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation. This stimulation results from catalytic desuppression of the cell surface glucose transporter GLUT1 [Diamond, D., and Carruthers, A. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268, 6437-6444]. The present study was undertaken to investigate the mechanisms of GLUT1 suppression/desuppression. Sugar uniport (sugar uptake or exit in the absence of sugar at the opposite side of the membrane) is absent in normoxic avian erythrocytes, but sugar antiport (sugar uptake coupled to sugar exit) is present. Exposure to cyanide and/or to FCCP (mitochondrial inhibitors) stimulates erythrocyte sugar uniport but not sugar antiport. K(m)(app) for 3-O-methylglucose uniport and antiport are unaffected by metabolic poisoning. Ki(app) for inhibitions of 3-O-methylglucose uniport by cytochalasin B and forskolin (sugar export site ligands) are unaffected by progressive stimulation of sugar uniport. Cyanide and FCCP stimulation of 3-O-methylglucose uniport are associated with increased AMP-activated protein kinase activity. Purified human GLUT1 is not phosphorylated by exposure to cytosol extracted from poisoned avian erythrocytes. FCCP does not stimulate GLUT1-mediated 3-O-methylglucose uptake in K562 cells but does increase K562 AMP-activated protein kinase activity. FCCP stimulation of 3-O-methylglucose uniport in resealed erythrocyte ghosts requires cytosolic ATP and/or glutathione. The nonmetabolizable ATP analog AMP-PNP cannot be substituted for ATP in this action. These results are contrasted with allosteric regulation of human erythrocyte sugar transport and suggest that avian erythrocyte sugar transport suppression results from inhibition of carrier uniport function. Uniport suppression is not mediated by interaction with cytosolic molecular species that bind to the sugar export site. The antiport to uniport switch mechanism requires ATP hydrolysis, is associated with elevated AMP-activated kinase function, and, if triggered by this kinase, is mediated by factors absent in K562 cells and downstream from the kinase.

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Biochemistry. 1996 Oct 8;35(40):13231-9. Link to article on publisher's site

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