GSBS Dissertations and Theses

ORCID ID

0000-0002-4735-4215

Approval Date

12-12-2017

Document Type

Doctoral Dissertation

Academic Program

Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, MD/PhD

Department

Program in Bioinformatics and Integrative Biology

First Thesis Advisor

Zhiping Weng, PhD

Keywords

ENCODE, enhancer, regulatory element, genome, epigenome, DNase, ChIP-seq, Big Data, visualization

Abstract

The goal of the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project has been to characterize all the functional elements of the human genome. These elements include expressed transcripts and genomic regions bound by transcription factors (TFs), occupied by nucleosomes, occupied by nucleosomes with modified histones, or hypersensitive to DNase I cleavage, etc. Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP-seq) is an experimental technique for detecting TF binding in living cells, and the genomic regions bound by TFs are called ChIP-seq peaks. ENCODE has performed and compiled results from tens of thousands of experiments, including ChIP-seq, DNase, RNA-seq and Hi-C.

These efforts have culminated in two web-based resources from our lab—Factorbook and SCREEN—for the exploration of epigenomic data for both human and mouse. Factorbook is a peak-centric resource presenting data such as motif enrichment and histone modification profiles for transcription factor binding sites computed from ENCODE ChIP-seq data. SCREEN provides an encyclopedia of ~2 million regulatory elements, including promoters and enhancers, identified using ENCODE ChIP-seq and DNase data, with an extensive UI for searching and visualization.

While we have successfully utilized the thousands of available ENCODE ChIP-seq experiments to build the Encyclopedia and visualizers, we have also struggled with the practical and theoretical inability to assay every possible experiment on every possible biosample under every conceivable biological scenario. We have used machine learning techniques to predict TF binding sites and enhancers location, and demonstrate machine learning is critical to help decipher functional regions of the genome.

DOI

10.13028/M23T1Q

Rights and Permissions

Licensed under a Creative Commons license

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License

Share

COinS
 
 

To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.