Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology
RNA Therapeutics Institute
First Thesis Advisor
Phillip D. Zamore, Ph. D.
Gene Silencing, RNA Interference, Adenosine Triphosphate, RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional, RNA, Double-Stranded
In diverse eukaryotic organisms, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) induces robust silencing of cellular RNA cognate to either strand of the input dsRNA; a phenomenon now known as RNA interference (RNAi). Within the RNAi pathway, small, 21 nucleotide (nt) duplexed RNA, dubbed small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), derived from the longer input dsRNA, guide the RNA induced silencing complex (RISC) to destroy its target RNA. Due to its ability to silence virtually any gene, whether endogenous or exogenous, in a variety of model organisms and systems, RNAi has become a valuable laboratory tool, and is even being heralded as a potential therapy for an array of human diseases. In order to understand this complex and unique pathway, we have undertaken the biochemical characterization of RNAi in the model insect, Drosophila melanogaster.
To begin, we investigated the role of ATP in the RNAi pathway. Our data reveal several ATP-dependent steps and suggest that the RNAi reaction comprises as least five sequential stages: ATP-dependent processing of double-stranded RNA into siRNAs, ATP-independent incorporation of siRNAs into an inactive ~360 kDa protein/RNA complex, ATP-dependent unwinding of the siRNA duplex to generate an active complex, ATP-dependent activation of RISC following siRNA unwinding, and ATP-independent recognition and cleavage of the RNA target. In addition, ATP is used to maintain 5´ phosphates on siRNAs, and only siRNAs with these characteristic 5´ phosphates gain entry into the RNAi pathway.
Next, we determined that RISC programmed exogenously with an siRNA, like that programmed endogenously with microRNAs (miRNAs), is an enzyme. However, while RISC behaves like a classical Michaelis-Menten enzyme in the presence of ATP, without ATP, multiple rounds of catalysis are limited by release of RISC-produced cleavage products. Kinetic analysis of RISC suggests that different regions of the siRNA play distinct roles in the cycle of target recognition, cleavage and product release. Bases near the siRNA 5´ end disproportionately contribute to target RNA-binding energy, whereas base pairs formed by the central and 3´ region of the siRNA provide helical geometry required for catalysis. Lastly, the position of the scissile phosphate is determined during RISC assembly, before the siRNA encounters its RNA target.
In the course of performing the kinetic assessment of RISC, we observed that when siRNAs are designed with regard to 'functional asymmetry' (by unpairing the 5´ terminal nucleotide of the siRNA's guide strand, i.e. the strand anti-sense to the target RNA), not all of the RISC formed was active for target cleavage. We observed, somewhat paradoxically, that increased siRNA unwinding and subsequent accumulation of single-stranded RNA into RISC led to reduced levels of active RISC formation. This inactive RISC did not act as a competitor for the active fraction. In order to characterize this non-cleaving complex, we performed a series of protein-siRNA photo-crosslinking assays. From these assays we found that thermodynamic stability and termini structure plays a role in determining which proteins an siRNA will associate with, and how association occurs. Furthermore, we have found, by means of the photo-crosslinking assays, that siRNAs commingle with components of the miRNA pathway, particularly Ago1, suggesting overlapping functions or crosstalk for factors thought to be involved in separate, distinct pathways.
Haley, B. A Biochemical Dissection of the RNA Interference Pathway in Drosophila melanogaster: A Dissertation. (2005). University of Massachusetts Medical School. GSBS Dissertations and Theses. Paper 9. DOI: 10.13028/gk19-7686. https://escholarship.umassmed.edu/gsbs_diss/9
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