Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences; Department of Cancer Biology
Neoplasm Metastasis; Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; Fibronectins; Transcriptional Activation; X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein; Academic Dissertations; Dissertations, UMMS
The dissemination of tumor cells to distant organs i.e. metastasis is an exceedingly complex process leading to 90% of all cancer deaths. Despite being so clinically important, little is known about this process that requires tumor cells to leave the primary tumor site, intravasate and transport through the blood stream, extravasate and colonize at secondary sites leading to distant metastases. Survivin, a member of the IAP (Inhibitor of Apoptosis) family with known functions in apoptosis and mitosis, is highly expressed in aggressive tumors and is associated with poor prognosis and adverse clinical outcome. But the mechanistic role of survivin in metastatic dissemination has not been investigated. In this study, we demonstrate an important and novel role of survivin in activating a broad gene expression program in tumor cells. Of particular importance is the upregulation of a distinct class of cell adhesion molecules, particularly fibronectin. This IAP mediated gene regulation requires synergistic intermolecular cooperation between survivin and its related cofactor molecule, XIAP that results in activation of NF-κB dependent fibronectin gene expression. The binding of fibronectin with its cognate cell surface receptors initiates outside–in signaling leading to the autocrine and paracrine activation of cell motility kinases, FAK and Src, in turn leading to enhanced tumor invasion and metastasis. The importance of survivin and XIAP in the process of metastasis has also been demonstrated in vivo using intrasplenic injections in mouse models.
Overall this study is the first to place survivin upstream of transcriptional activation of gene expression particularly fibronectin. In addition, it also demonstrates the importance of survivin-XIAP complex in mediating NF-κB activation which in turn switches on the expression of various target genes involved in tumor metastasis. Hence this study dissects the upstream and downstream requirements of survivin- XIAP complex mediated tumor dissemination and metastasis.
Significance of this Study
The hallmark of end-stage cancer is metastasis, an incurable condition almost invariably associated with death from disease. Despite a better understanding of the metastatic process, and the identification of key gene expression requirements of this pathway, the development of anti-metastatic therapies has lagged behind, with no viable options being currently offered in the clinical setting. Our findings that Inhibitor of Apoptosis (IAP) proteins functions as metastasis-promoting genes independently of cell survival, but through activation of cell motility could have important ramifications for the broader application of IAP antagonists currently in early clinical trials, as novel anti-metastatic therapies.
Mehrotra, S. IAP Regulation of Tumor Metastasis: A Dissertation. (2009). University of Massachusetts Medical School. GSBS Dissertations and Theses. Paper 437. https://escholarship.umassmed.edu/gsbs_diss/437
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