Publication Date


Document Type

Doctoral Dissertation

Academic Program



Diabetes Division

First Thesis Advisor

Dr. Aldo Rossini


ADP Ribose Transferases, Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte, Cell Nucleus, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1, Rats, Inbred BB


The glycophosphatidylinositol(GPI)-linked membrane protein ART2 is an antigenic determinant for T lymphocytes that regulate the expression of diabetes in the BB/W rat model. Though little is understood of the physiologic role of ART2 on T lymphocytes, ART2 is a member of the mono-ADP-ribosyl transferase subgroup ofthe ADP-ribosyl transferase (ART) protein family. The ART protein family, which traditionally has been divided into mono-ADP-ribosyl transferases (mono-ARTs), poly(ADP)-ribose polymerases (PARPs), and ADP-ribosyl cyclases, influences various aspects of cellular physiology including: apoptosis, DNA damage repair, chromatin remodeling, telomere replication, cellular transport, immune regulation, neuronal function, and bacterial virulence. A structural alignment of ART2.2 with chicken PARP indicated the potential for ART2.2 to catalyze ADP-ribose polymers in an activity thought to be specific to the PARP subgroup and important for their regulation of nuclear processes. Kinetic studies determined that the auto-ADP-ribosyl transferase activity of ART2.2 is multitmeric and heterogeneous in nature. Hydroxylamine-cleaved ADP-ribose moieties from the ART2.2 multimers ran as polymers on a modified sequencing gel, and digestion of the polymers with snake-venom phosphodiesterase produced AMP and the poly(ADP)ribose-specific product, PR-AMP, which was resolved by analytical HPLC and structurally confirmed by ESI-MS. The ratio of AMP to PR-AMP was higher than that of PARP raising the possibility that the ART2.2 polymers had a different branching structure than those of PARP. This alternative branching was confirmed by the presence of ribose phosphate polymers in the snake venom phophodiesterase treated samples. The site of the auto-poly(ADP)-ribose modification was determined to be R185, a residue previously proposed to influence the level of auto-ADP ribosylation of ART2.2 by mutational analysis. These data provide the first demonstration of a hybrid between mono-ARTs and PARPs and are the earliest indication that PARP-like enzymes can exist outside the nucleus and on the cell surface.


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